Prostate Cancer

US researchers have found that men with prostrate cancer have an increased risk of aggressive tumor if they are carriers of a gene mutation which is normally linked to breast cancer in women. This finding could have major implications in treatment options for prostrate cancer. If a patient carries the mutated gene, he may want to opt against watchful waiting of prostrate cancer, where it is just monitored and not treated. Surgery or radiation treatment would be the best option here.

It is difficult to distinguish between aggressive tumors and the ones who may stay without spreading or enlarging. The researchers examined 979 men with prostrate cancer and 1251 men without the cancer. They looked at whether the men carried the mutations of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. These are the genes that cause an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer in women.

Only Ashkenazi Jews were included in the study because they are five times more likely to carry the mutation in the genes than the general population. The study found that the mutations did not increase the risk of a man getting prostrate cancer, but those who already had the cancer stood a higher risk of having a more aggressive tumor.

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer, after skin cancer, in America. It affects one in six men.

Statistically, more than 192000 men are likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2009. More than 27000 men also die from it. Every 2.7 minutes one new case occurs and a patient dies from the disease every 19 minutes.

More than 2 million Americans are estimated to have this disease currently. Old age, family history of prostrate cancer and African American race are factors that increase the likelihood of this disease.

As men grow older, the risk of developing prostrate cancer also increases exponentially.
1 in 10,000 under the age of 40 will be diagnosed with prostrate cancer. From the ages of 40 to 59, this rate shoots up to 1 in 39. From 60 to 69 years of age, it is 1 in 14. More than 65% of prostate cancer diagnoses are made in men above the age of 65.

African American men have 56% more likelihood to develop prostate cancer than Caucasian men. They are also 2.5 times as likely to die from the disease.

If the father, brother or son has a history of prostrate cancer, the man is twice as likely to develop the disease. If two or more relatives have prostrate cancer history, the likelihood increases to four times.

Now the study conducted on gene mutation and prostrate cancer, estimates that participants with aggressive tumors had 3.2 times more likelihood of carrying the BRCA2 gene mutation than the men in control group.

Prostate Cancer Surgery

In general, there are three types of surgery that can be performed as prostate cancer treatment. The type of surgery that would be recommended depends on the stage of cancer the surgeons are dealing with and the location of the cancer.

Prostate cancer surgery is performed only when there is likelihood that the cancer is treatable. If the cancer is too far advanced, more than likely surgery will not be an option. Surgery options are usually limited to prostate cancer at Stages I, II, and III.

Standard Non-Nerve Sparing Surgery
In this type of prostate cancer surgery, the surgeon cuts widely around the prostate. In this surgery, a wide cut is made to make sure that the cancer is removed and that there is nothing left behind. Nerves are cut and removed with the rest of the portion, giving the chance that the cancer will be completely removed from the patient.

Standard Nerve Sparing Surgery
In this type of prostate cancer surgery, the nerves are spared. The surgeon cuts close to the edge of the prostate and removes only that portion, leaving the nerves intact. This is an attempt to preserve the natural potency of the semen. Even if this type of surgery is performed, the potency may still decrease.

Radical Prostatectomy
This prostate cancer surgery is a better option than radiation for patients who have a Gleason score of 8.9.or 10. It is used to help treat prostate cancer in Stages I, II, and III. At the surgeon's discretion, the incision can be made in the perineal area, between the scrotum and the rectum, or in the lower abdominal region. A small number of surgeons can perform a laparoscopic surgery through a surgical robot.

In this surgery, the entire prostate and the seminal vesicles will be removed. The surgery will also consist of reconnecting the urethra to the bladder so that the patient will be able to void normally after the procedure is done. This operation does take three to four hours and will require a four- to five-day hospital stay for recovery. The laparoscopic surgery takes a considerably longer time; however, the hospital stay is reduced quite a bit. With this surgery, the cancer will be removed completely; however, it can leave the patient impotent (with no ability to gain or maintain an erection).

Complications include but are not limited to:
• Impotence. The loss of the ability to get or maintain an erection
• Incontinence
• Inability to control urine after surgery (either temporary or permanent)
• Loss of ejaculation
• Loss of fertility
• Other complications that are related to any form of surgery

After surgery you will be required to follow up many times with your physician. This is to ensure that there are no problems, to assist you with the problems that you may have, and to make sure that the cancer has not spread or returned in another location.

If you have any questions about prostate cancer surgery, it is best that you ask your physician prior to the surgery so that you know what to expect before, during, and after the procedure.

Accuracy of Ovarian Cancer Statistics

Cancer survival rate statistics and life expectancies are very misleading and quite inappropriate for several reasons. Certain types of cancer stats, like ovarian cancer for example, are even more absurd than many others.

One problem is they are a glimpse into the rear view mirror. They can not account for all the advances in modern medicine. If you think about it, all of these statistics show the mortality rates of ovarian cancer sufferers in the past. Anyone who died from the disease, did not have access to the most modern treatments of today. Cancer is a field with millions of rich world sufferers. World governments and large health corporations are pouring money into research for political and economic reasons. There is accelerated growth in knowledge.

A second concern is that ovarian cancer is not as common as some other ones. The statistics are less relevant than lung cancer due to the fact that there is less data to start with.

Each cancer is different in nature. Even if the doctor tells you are in stage 4, there is still a lot of difference amongst members in that group. Not all stage 4 people are really the same. It is just a simple way to give you a rough idea of which boat you are in.

Another issue with the stats is that they do not differentiate between people who are in different emotional states. There is some evidence that a positive outlook can add years to a patient's life. Mind/body medicine is becoming even more mainstream in the west. A negative outlook can cause a patient to almost kill themselves because this traumatic diagnoses causes the body to release large amounts of cortisol, a damaging stress hormone.

Ovarian Cancer Symptoms

Cancer of the ovary, a disease affecting one of both of the ovaries, is one of the most serious and under-recognized ailments affecting women. In United States, it is considered as the fifth among the most fatal gynecologic cancers (affecting the female reproductive organs). It is said that in every 57 women, one may be diagnosed with ovarian cancer and almost half of those women diagnosed with the said cancer may die in a span of five years.

Ovarian Cancer: Overview

Ovarian cancer is characterized by the malignant growth of one or of the two ovaries. The cells in the ovary multiply progressively and abnormally to the point that they can no longer be controlled. As a result, excessive tissues start to form tumors, which may be benign or malignant. The malignant ones are those that cause cancer.

The growth of the tumor may not necessarily start from the ovary or the ovaries, but may have spread to the ovary from other parts of the body, oftentimes the breast. The malignant tumor in the ovary may likewise spread to other parts of the body. The most common cases of ovarian cancer arise from epithelial cancer, which affect the epithelial cells (cells found in the tissues covering surfaces of the ovary).

Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

It is important for women to be aware of the nature and symptoms of ovarian cancer as this deadly cancer can affect women of any age. However, women face higher risk of ovarian cancer as she gets older, particularly after she reaches the age of fifty.

Most of the time, the symptoms of ovarian cancer do not show up until the cancer is widespread or in its advanced stage. This makes a woman at higher risk since it can be too late before she may be able to detect symptoms of ovarian cancer. Moreover, there are only very few symptoms of the cancer, which may be mistaken as symptoms of other health conditions.

The very first symptom of ovarian cancer is vague abdominal discomfort and bloating, which is caused by the excess fluid in the abdominal cavity. One always feels full even when she has not eaten much. As time passes by the swelling of the abdomen intensifies that some of your clothes may no longer fit you. Usually, it is because of this unusual swelling (way different from a woman's monthly water retention) that most women go to the doctor for check up.

Bloating is accompanied by digestive disturbances, unexplained changes in the bowel habits and urinary patterns. There are frequent trips to the bathroom even in the absence of a urinary tract infection or other health problems. One may feel nauseous, very tired and she may feel like vomiting at times. She may also feel discomfort and pain during an intercourse.

Pain and swelling in the pelvic area is also noticeable upon closer physical examination. This is due to the swelling in the pelvis. In very rare instances, a woman in her postmenopausal stage experiences abnormal bleeding.

Other vague and non-specific symptoms of ovarian cancer include back and leg pain, loss of appetite, undernourished appearance, weight gain or weigh loss, and unusual bleeding in the vagina (heavier and longer than the usual menstrual bleeding).

Detecting Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

Screening is a way to detect the symptoms of ovarian cancer. The earlier the patient is screened, the better so as to decrease the mortality and morbidity of ovarian cancer. One of the most effective ways to detect the cancer in its early stage is through pelvic and rectal exam.

Ovarian Cancer Treatment

Ovarian cancer, a condition characterized by an overgrowth of malignant cells in one or both of the ovaries, is one of the deadliest and under-recognized cancers affecting women. Every year, there are more than 25,000 women that suffer from this deadly disease. Half of them are most likely to die within a period of five years.

Early Detection: Improves Ovarian Cancer Treatment

The sad thing about ovarian cancer is that during the early stage, there are usually no signs and symptoms that tell you about this disorder. Symptoms start to show up when the cancer is already widespread, making ovarian cancer treatment too difficult.

However, there are women who are lucky enough to detect the symptoms early on; hence, diagnosis is hastened up and ovarian cancer treatment is given immediately. Tests such as pelvic and rectal screening, ultrasound, x-ray and laparoscopy may help a doctor detect tumors in the ovaries.

At present, almost 75 percent of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer are not treated immediately due to late detection of the cancer. Experts say that when detection of the cancer is made early and when ovarian cancer treatment is given immediately, women diagnosed with the disease have 90% survival rate since the cancer can be easily treated in its early stage.

Diagnosis and Ovarian Cancer Treatment

When symptoms finally show up and the doctor suspects that a patient may have ovarian cancer, laparoscopy is conducted to confirm diagnosis. It is a direct visual examination of the abdominal cavity, the ovaries, the exterior of the fallopian tubes and the uterus using an instrument that is inserted just underneath the navel.

Upon confirmation of ovarian cancer, the doctor explores the extent of the cancer and submits the patient for surgery. The surgeon removes the growth or much of the malignant tissue. In most cases, the whole ovary or both of the ovaries and the fallopian tubes are removed as they the malignant cancer cells have already affected these areas. This kind of surgery is called salpingooophorectomy. If the malignant cells affect the uterus, hysterectomy is conducted (surgical removal of the uterus).

Surgery is usually ensued by radiotherapy, which is the use of high energy radiation to destroy malignant cancer cells in the body and shrink remaining tumors, which may later on become malignant. This procedure may be done using an external machine or a radioactive material put inside the body near the malignant cells.

The patient also undergoes chemotherapy, whereby the patient is given anti-cancer drugs to help hasten up ovarian cancer treatment. Drugs may be administered orally (through the mouth), intravenously (through the veins) or through the muscles (by means of injection of a needle.

Most anticancer drugs given to the patient have chemical compounds that are toxic to the malignant cells; thus, growth of the cancer cells is reduced or stopped. These anticancer drugs are called cytotoxic drugs. Other anticancer drugs used are synthetic forms of sex hormones such as androgen drugs and progesterone drugs.

In most instances, different kinds of anticancer drugs are prescribed in combination in order to speed up ovarian cancer treatment. However, not all ovarian cancer patients are given with the same anticancer drugs. The drugs given to a patient depends on the extent or stage of development of the ovarian cancer and her general health condition.

Diagnosing Ovarian Cancer

The fear of ovarian cancer is well founded: the majority of affected women die. Fortunately, more and more women undergo regular physical exams and are more in tune with their bodies than ever. This has led to earlier detections of this deadly disease and the earlier ovarian cancer is caught, the greater the likelihood of survival and reversal.

The symptoms of the disease have been discussed in detail, and women who suddenly notice that they have an elevated need to visit the rest room or find that they are not able to eat as much as they previously able to ingest during a meal, are encouraged to undergo diagnostic exams. The same is said for those women who suddenly feel an abdominal tenderness or pain. 

Yet do you know how diagnosing ovarian cancer is achieved?

A pelvic exam, which is done during the annual visit with the gynecologist, most often includes a probing of the uterus and the ovaries to check for any enlargement. If a change in size is detected either from one ovary to the next, or since the last exam, the odds are good that the physician will request a complete work up in the framework of a physical exam.

During a physical exam, a complete blood work up is also ordered and in cases of suspected cancerous growth, a test entitled CA-125 is ordered. It is imperative to understand that the test as a standalone will not offer a valid diagnosis of ovarian cancer. It simply measures the presence of CA-125 levels in the blood, which are an indicator of potentially cancerous cells in the body yet without truly providing the location from which these cells are shed.

Another diagnostic tool employed at the gynecologist's office may be the use of a transvaginal ultrasound. This tool is used in early pregnancy detection, especially when a previous pregnancy resulted in miscarriage, and permits for a wand to be vaginally inserted. This test provides stunning images of the ovaries and surrounding tissues and is of the utmost importance when seeking to diagnose ovarian cancer. This method also permits for a correct measurement of the tumor or tumors, the number of tumors, and their exact locations.

A biopsy is another method of checking for cancerous cells and it involves the removal of actual tissues from the ovaries. It is not surprising that this is not that frequently used to diagnose the cancer since any tumors on the ovaries - even if they are still benign - are subject to removal due to their high transmogrification rate into malignant tumors. It is, however, a most valuable tool in ascertaining the staging of the cancer and the potential for metastasizing.

Although diagnosing ovarian cancer requires a number of different steps to arrive at a conclusive result, it is not surprising that due to the high mortality rate associated with this cancer the need for treatment is immediate and decisive and for this reason many a physician will set a surgery date as she or he awaits the results of the tests to come in.

Definition Of Ovarian Cancer
Women desperate for the condition of being pregnant can be setting themselves up for melanoma if they take fertility medication. Mary Rossing, PH.D. And colleagues at the University of Washington at the Cancer Research Center encounter that women taking fertility medication had 2-1/s times the ordinary danger of increasing ovarian cancer, especially long-term usage of the drug clomiphene, at the Stanford University school of Medicine encounter a threefold greater danger of ovarian cancer in the company of women using fertility drugs.

Ovarian cancer is thought to stem from genetic mistakes that happen as cells divide to patch up the ovary when it ruptures to relief an egg. Before the present time the condition of being pregnant, which comes to an end ovulation for months at a time, has been made known to greatly bring down the odds of a woman developing ovarian cancer, it stands to reason that whatever thing that stimulates ovulation will contain the opposite influence.
 This genetic imperfection, by the way, may perhaps be corrected through good nutrition. All the illnesses that befall us are produced or influenced by genes. Definitely as you are born with faulty genes, does not mean you allow to live with them. The actuality is, the body has enzymatic machinery designed to overcome and patch-up faulty nuclear DNA (genes). This offensive line depends on good nourishment for optimum performance. Emanuel Cheraskin, M.D., says, ýthink of the gene as the seed, the setting as the soil. You can grow a healthy plant in useful soil even if you start out with a weak seed.ý

A acquaintance revealed me they recently revealed the gene for being overweight. ýIt was revealed at the bottom of a container of Haagen Daz ice cream,ý she laughed.

The eating of dairy products has been connected to a higher-than-normal incidence of ovarian cancer. In 1989, Gynecologist Daniel Kramer at Harvard Medical School in Boston linked galactose eating with an increased chance of ovarian cancer. Galactose has been discover to be toxic to human eggs, it may perhaps be that it in some way interferes with our enzymatic offensive line.

If you desire to avoid ovarian cancer, do not eat fatty products, and concentrate of fresh, whole vegetables. Harvey Risch, M.D., Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine encounter that the mean cholesterol-raising properties of Tran fatty acids, saturated fat an eggs increased a womanýs odds of arriving ovarian cancer. He encounter eating vegetable fiber decreased the risk as it decreased the cholesterol. He reached that reducing the intake of saturated fat and consuming additional vegetables appears to decrease the probability of ovarian cancer. If your cholesterol is high and you are concerned about ovarian cancer, take aged garlic extract.